Plagiarism: Don’t Do It
A funny video from Washburn University
Chapter 5 is a little different from the rest of the chapters in that you don’t have to memorize information. What you do have to do is read carefully. It take a close reading of an original passage and one that has been written from it to determine if the 2nd passage was plagiarized. So look for unique words (not and, the, one, etc.) that have been used in the second passage; there is no 5 or 3 or 7 “words in a row” determination of plagiarism. If the unique word is not in quotes it is considered plagiarism. Also remember that ideas can be plagiarized. If you take an idea from an article, book, the web, or an image from the same, you need to document the source. Also, in the quiz, if you don’t see a citation at the end of the passage, and that passage echoes the original, that is plagiarism. You need to see that citation. So there are 3 aspects to the possibility of plagiarism:
- Using an exact word or phrase from another writer without quotation marks;
- Using an idea, even if you paraphrase it, from another writer without citing that other writer;
- Not having a citation for any ideas or words or images that you didn’t create yourself.
Just remember–careful reading and rereading.
1. 1. Common knowledge can be tricky. In most cases, it is going to be knowledge that is factual, and is known to be true by many people. You can look up the same information in ten, fifteen, or more different sources and you’ll get the same answer. Things that are not common knowledge are more squishy—hypotheses and research results, opinions about issues, predictions about the future, things that are not actually factual but may be stated as facts by certain people. In all cases, if you look up information on these issues, you will read differing results or opinions or predictions. Which of the following is common knowledge and which is not:
- The Big Bang Theory is based on the assumption that the universe began billions of years ago with a tremendous explosion.
- A recent study from the Brookings Institute found that the number of people living in poverty in America grew by 12.3 million between 2000 and 2010.
- The dates of the Vietnam War.
- The effects of Agent Orange on Vietnam War veterans
- Richmond is the capital of Virginia
- Michelangelo was shorter than the average man of his time.
- There is a definite link between overhead power lines and cancer in children
- George Washington was the first president
- John Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald there were no other conspirators involved in the killing.Bill Clinton was elected as a result of a generational split.
2. According to Chapter 5, even if you are paraphrasing, summarizing and putting the author’s ideas into your own words, you still need to be careful to follow a few rules:
- Even if you use none of the author’s original words, you need to site the ideas (where did you get this idea or fact) so you need a citation for the work that presents a specific idea or study result.
- If you do use even one of the author’s words, if it is a significant word (like motorist, pedestrian, enhancing the safety of pedestrians), you need to put that word(s) in quotes. Of course you don’t have to put in quotes such words as and, the, of, are.
- Be true to what the author is saying. Do not misrepresent the author’s message or conclusions.
3. Correct paraphrasing take a good deal of reflection about what the writer is saying. Summarizing an author’s ideas can take great skill, especially if you are synthesizing a paragraph down to a sentence. Keeping in mind the points in question 2, and based on the Chapter 5 readings, determine whether the following paraphrases are correct or not:
In an age when students gravitate to online sources for research- and when tremendous amounts of both reputable and questionable information are available online- many have come to regard the Internet itself as a culprit in students’ plagiarism. Some teachers go so far as to forbid students from researching online, in the mistaken assumption that if students are working from hard-copy sources only, the problem will disappear.
Many teachers blame the internet for the increase in student plagiarism. With so much information available to students online, there is more of a temptation to “cut and paste” materials word-for-word in their papers. In some cases, students are forbidden from using the internet at all for research, a constraint which often puts the student at a disadvantage.1
1. Rebecca Moore Howard and Laura J. Davis, “Plagiarism in the internet age,” Educational Leadership, 66:6 (March2009), pp. 64-67.
b. Original (This example came from the Owl at Purdue University, http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/1/)
Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.
Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.
c. Original (This example came from Indiana University’s School of Education, https://www.indiana.edu/~istd/example1paraphrasing.html)
Developing complex skills in the classroom involves the key ingredients identified in teaching pigeons to play ping-pong and to bowl. The key ingredients are: (1) inducing a response, (2) reinforcing subtle improvements or refinements in the behavior, (3) providing for the transfer of stimulus control by gradually withdrawing the prompts or cues, and (4) scheduling reinforcements so that the ratio of reinforcements in responses gradually increases and natural reinforcers can maintain their behavior.
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
According to Gredler (2001), the same factors apply to developing complex skills in a classroom setting as to developing complex skills in any setting. A response must be induced, then reinforced as it gets closer to the desired behavior. Reinforcers have to be scheduled carefully, and cues have to be withdrawn gradually so that the new behaviors can be transferred and maintained.
References: Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
d. Original (This example came from Indiana University’s School of Education, https://www.indiana.edu/~istd/example1paraphrasing.html)
Technology has significantly transformed education at several major turning points in our history. In the broadest sense, the first technology was the primitive modes of communication used by prehistoric people before the development of spoken language. Mime, gestures, grunts, and drawing of figures in the sand with a stick were methods used to communicate – yes, even to educate. Even without speech, these prehistoric people were able to teach their young how to catch animals for food, what animals to avoid, which vegetation was good to eat and which was poisonous.
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.
History has demonstrated that technology affects education profoundly. Considering the definition of technology broadly, one may say that prehistoric people used primitive technologies to teach skills to their young (Frick, 1991).
e. Original (This example came from American University, http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=42&ved=0CDMQFjABOCg&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.american.edu%2Focl%2Fasc%2Fupload%2FTo-Quote-Paraphrase-or-Summarize.pdf&ei=lixsUZOoCfHW2wWHh4CwCQ&usg=AFQjCNFS5wLb3EmRygExLPQYUDymOiPBJg&cad=rja)
“Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes.” Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.
Example: Students should take just a few notes in direct quotations from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester, 46-47).
“. . .Television works on the same imaginative and intellectual level as psychoactive drugs. If prolonged television viewing makes the young passive (dozens of studies indicate that it does), then moving to drugs has a certain coherence. Drugs provide an unearned high in contrast to the earned rush that comes from a feat accomplished, a human breakthrough earned by sweat or thought or love.
“And because the television addict and the drug addict are alienated from the hard and scary world, they also feel that they make no difference in its complicated events. For the junkie, the world is reduced to him and the needle, pipe or vile; the self is absolutely isolated, with no desire for choice. The television addict behaves in the same way. Many Americans who fail to vote in presidential elections must believe they have no more control over such a choice than they do over the casting of L.A. Law. . ..”
Hamill, Pete. “Crack and the Box.” The Writer’s Presence. Second edition. Eds. Donald McQuade and Robert Atwan. Boston, MA: Bedford Books, 1997. 296-301. Print.
Paraphrased (From Mcgeeheeblogs.com, http://mcgeheeblogs.com/writingcenter/research-and-citation/incorporating-sources-2/paraphrasing-correctly/)
Television and drugs have a lot in common. Both are very addictive and have been influencing the fate of our country. If it weren’t for drugs and television, more people would vote intelligently because they would not be seeing all of the persuasive commercials that alter opinions. In the same way, drug addicts don’t vote enough because they are too concerned with the next time they get high, instead of with current events (Hamill 299).
Hamill, Pete. “Crack and the Box.” The Writer’s Presence. Second edition. Eds. Donald McQuade and Robert Atwan. Boston, MA: Bedford Books, 1997. 296-301. Print.
Answers to questions.
- This is common knowledge. However, if you stated that the Big Bank Theory correctly describes the development of the universe, you would need to quote that.
- This is not common knowledge. You would need to cite where you got this information.
- Common knowledge.
- This is not common knowledge. There have been studies done on this subject, but there is no one definitive answer. You would need to site this information.
- Common knowledge
- This is not common knowledge. Most people don’t know this and would question how you can make that statement. You would need to cite your source.
- This is not common knowledge. Again, there may have been studies done in this area, but there is no certain answer. You would need to cite the source for this information.
- Common knowledge.
- This is a very controversial subject. It is pretty much common knowledge that Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, but there is no agreement if there were other shooters or if Oswald were involved in a conspiracy to assassinate the president. You would need to cite the source you used.
- This is not common knowledge. It is speculation perhaps based on quantifiable data, but it is not common knowledge. That Bill Clinton was elected is certainly common knowledge.
Fact is, if you aren’t sure whether or not something is common knowledge, you need to cite it.
- Not plagiarism: This paraphrase is very close to the original. However, it does not copy words and it does represent what the author has said. Also, the author is cited.
- Plagiarism: The paraphraser has copied a few phrases from the original work. Also, original work is not cited.
- Plagiarism: There are phrases used in the paraphrase that are used in the original. Also, step 3 is missing.
- Plagiarism: A lot of the sense of the original argument is left out. Also, no citation.
- Plagiarism: Again, a lot of the sense of the argument is missing.
- Plagiarism: I don’t think the author was referring to drug addicts when s/he was talking about voting.
1. Indexes can be a couple of things. Usually at the back of a book there is an index with words or phrases in alphabetical order with page numbers in the book where you can find that term. In libraries, indexes are something else altogether. In libraries, we use periodical indexes. For what? Periodical indexes are the main tools for finding articles in periodicals. Let me say that a different way. If you want to find periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper) articles, you would use a periodical index.
If you tell a librarian that you need information on PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) in children, and you need to use scholarly journals, the librarian will show you an index to use. In this case, probably an index that focuses on psychology. The best one is PsycInfo. To get there, you go to the library’s home page and click on Article Indexes and Databases in the center of the page. You would not use QuickSearch, because you want to use journal articles, and PsycInfo will give you better, more focused articles than Quicksearch. Click on P at the bottom of the page, and then PsycInfo. When you do, you’ll see this page:
This is when you want to remember Boolean searching from the last chapter. You don’t want articles on just children or just PTSD or post-traumatic stress disorder. So you will use a search statement like you see in this search box:
Now, you need to use scholarly articles. Let me give you a little hint: scholarly articles are the same thing as peer reviewed articles. You can see right under the search box a box you can click on for Peer reviewed. Click on that, you will get records for the kind of articles you want. You retrieve over 3000 records! Wow! You might want to narrow down your list by clicking on one of the limiters on the right side of the page:
You can see that we’ve already narrowed source type to scholarly journals. We can also limit to English language and to a particular date range (2000-2013). We might also want to limit by population, in this case childhood (birth – 12 years)
When we place all those limits on our search, we end up with just over 1,000 records. That’s still a lot, but let’s look at a couple of these records to see if we are getting what we want. See a couple of the records below:
The first article looks like it might work, but as to the second, we’re not really interested in Kurdistanian children and their parents in homeland and exile. We can either click on the linked article itself, or on the link at the bottom of the record—Citation/Abstract. When we do, we see:
If we click on the subjects Child psychopathology and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, we will narrow our search down even more. Subject headings or descriptors are not the same as keywords. Subject headings are assigned by the database creator and are very specific to the database. Also, because they have been assigned to the record, you can bet that they are going to be found only in those articles whose contents are mainly about the subject.
See the Get it@ISU button circled in red? Sometimes you will see a record like the one below:
In this case, you can get the full text (or PDF) straight from the database. But the record above this one does not indicate that you can get full-text PDF. However, if you click on the Get it@ISU button, our system will search all our databases to see if we have that record online from another database.
We don’t have every article that can be found in PsycInfo, online or in print. If we don’t, Interlibrary Loan is a quick way to get the article.
Remember: Periodical indexes’ main purpose is to help you find citations to articles on your subject.
2. Sometimes you find a citation in the list of references in a book or at the end of a scholarly article, and you’re not sure whether the citation is to a book, an article, or a book chapter.
For a book the citation should always have:
- Book author
- Book title
- Place where the book was published
- Date of publication
These parts may be in a different order, but they are always there.
- Article author
- Article title
- Journal title
- Volume and issue
- Page numbers
Again, these might be in a different order, but they should all be there (except in the case of issue; some citations may have a volume number without an issue number.
A book chapter looks a little different, but has:
- Chapter author
- Chapter title
- The word “In”
- The book author or editor
- The book title
- Place of publication of the book
- Publisher of the book
- Page numbers for the chapter within the book.
Let’s see if you can identify whether the following are books, articles, or book chapters:
a. Samuel S. Green. “Personal relations between librarians and readers.” Library Journal, vol. 1 (Oct. 1876): 74-81.
b. Becker, Howard Saul, Blanche Geer, ad Everett C. Hughes. 1968. Making the grade: the academic side of college life. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
c. Kvivik, Robert B. 2005. Convenience, communications, and control: How students use technology. In Educating the net generation, edited by Diana G. Oblinger and James L. Oblinger. Boulder, CO: EDUCAUSE, 86-113.
d. Toffler, Alvin. 1970. Future shock. New York: Random House.
e. Suchman, Luch A., and Randall H. Trigg. “Understanding practice: Video as a medium for reflection and design.” In Design at work: cooperative design of computer systems, ed. Joan Greenbaum and Morten Kyng, 65-89. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1950.
f. Wagner, Cynthia. “Blabbing on your blog.” Futurist, 40:4 (2006): 7-9.
, Nick. Tomorrow never knows: Rock and psychedelics in the 1960s. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.
>Dore. “Response to crisis in American art.” Art in America 57 (1969): 24-35.
i. Hoffman, Abbie, and Jerry Rubin. “Yippie Manifesto.” In Takin’ it to the streets: a sixties reader, ed. Alexander Bloom and Wini Breines, 323-4. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
>Alcalay, Amiel. “Memory/imagination/resistance.” South Atlantic Quarterly, 102, no. 4 (2003): 851-9.
k. Curtis, Michael, and Mordecai S. Chertoff, eds. Israel: Social structure and change. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1973.
l. Crane, R.S. “A neglected mid-eighteenth century plea for originality and its author,” in Evidence for authorship: Essays on problems of attribution. Edited by David V. Erdman and Ephim G. Vogel. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1966, 273-282.
m. Wheatley, Jack. April, 1986. “The use of case studies in the science classroom.” Journal of College Science Teaching, 15: 428-31.
3. To find out if the library has the above items, what search terms would you use and what option in the third drop-down box on QuickSearch?
4. You want to find out about college athletes and their academic achievement. You go to ERIC which is the best education index, and you find many articles. You would like to refine your search by using the ERIC subject headings. When you click on the record, this is what you find:
What are the subject headings you can use (remember in periodical indexes, subject headings are sometimes called descriptors)?
5. You want to find some articles on United States protest to the Vietnam War. You go to the database America: History and Life, because that is the best index to use for American history. You find an article, but would like to use the designated subject headings to maybe narrow down your search. You click on what looks like a good article, and you see the following:
What are the subject headings you can use?
6. You are doing research on the effect of stress on children’s memories. Your instructor told you about an article on the subject that would probably be valuable. You have the title of the article, but nothing else. Go to QuickSearch and type in: maltreated children’s memory: accuracy, suggestibility and psychopathology. In the first drop-down menu choose Article and in the third choose Title. Click on the title of the article and see if you can find it in full text. What are your options for downloading this article?
Answers to question 2: What information have you got?
a. Author, Title, Title, Volume #, Date, Pages = Journal article.
The first title is the article title, the second, in italics, is the title of the journal.
b. Editors (authors), Date, Title (in italics), Place of publication, Publisher. = Book.
c. Author, Date, Title, “In”, Title, Editor, Place of publication, Publisher, Pages. = Chapter in a book.
The first author is the author of the chapter; the first title is the title of the chapter. “In” is always a dead give-away that you’re looking at a book chapter.
d. Author, Date, Title, Place of publication, Publisher. = Book
e. Authors, Title, “In,” Title, Editor, Pages, Place of publication, Publisher, Date. = Chapter in a book. Remember the “In.”
f. Author, Title, Title (in italics), Volume and Issue, Date, Pages. = Journal article
g. Author, Title, Place of publication, Publisher, Date. = Book
h. Author, Title, Title (in italics), Volume, Date, Pages. = Journal article
i. Authors, Title, “In,” Title, Editors, Pages, Place of publication, Publisher, Date. = Chapter in a book.
j. Author, Title, Title, Volume and issue, Date, Pages. = Journal article
k. Authors, Title, Place of publication, Publisher, Date. = Book
l. Author, Title, “In,” Title, Editors, Place of publication, Publisher, Date. = Book chapter.
m. Author, Date, Title, Title, Volume #, Pages. = Journal article.
Answers to question 3:
a. In this one you’re looking for an article in a journal. Your best option would be to use Journals in the first drop-down box and In the title for the third drop down box. This is very important. To find out if we have the article, you need to find out if we actually have the journal the article is in. So you would type in the terms Library journal and search QuickSearch for the title of the journal.
If you click on the tab that says Locations/Request item, you see that the library has from volume 1 (which is the one you’re looking for) and the dash after 1876 means we are still receiving this journal. So you would need to find the journal, and then find the article within the journal.
b. Becker, howard as Author or
Making the grade: the academic side of college life as Title
c. Here you are looking for a chapter in the book, so you need to find the actual book that chapter is in.
Oblinger, Diana as Author or
Educating the net generation as Title.
You would NOT look for the author or title of the chapter.
d. Toffler Alvin as Author or
Future shock as Title
e. Again, you have a chapter in a book, so you need to find the book.
Greenbaum joan as Author or
Greenbaum and kyng as Author or
Design at work: cooperative design of computer systems as Title
f. Journal in 1st drop-down box, then Futurist in search box and Title in the 3rd drop-down box
g. Bromell nick as Author or
Tomorrow never knows: rock and psychedelics in the 1960s as Title
h. Journal in 1st drop-down box, then art in america in search box and Title in the 3rd drop-down box
i. bloom alexander as Author or
bloom and breines as Author or
takin’ it to the streets: a sixties reader as Title
j. Journal in 1st drop-down box, then south atlantic quarterly in search box and Title in the 3rd drop-down box
k. Curtis Michael as Author or
Curtis and cherthoff as Author or
Israel: social structure and change as Title
l. erdman david as Author or
erdman and vogel as Author or
Evidence for authorship: Essays on problems of attribution as Title
m. Journal in 1st drop-down box, then journal of college science teaching in search box and Title in the 3rd drop-down box
Answer to question 4:
- Grade point average
- Academic achievement
- Factor analysis
- College students
- Statistical analysis
- Higher education
- Data analysis
- Comparative analysis
- Educational psychology
Answer to question 5:
- Peace movements
- Social movements
- Demonstrations (collective behavior)
- Protest movements
- Vietnam War 1961-1975
- Practical politics
Answer to question 6:
If you look at the top right-hand side of the first page of the article, you have two options: Full text html and Full text PDF. You can use either of these options to download and save the article. In some cases, those options may show up in a different place: on the top left, on the left or right halfway down the page, at the end of the article. And you don’t always have a choice. In many cases you can only download an article in PDF. So look for these options when you find an article online that you want to save or print.
Finding Articles in Academic Search Premier
From San Jose State University
Academic Search Premier works just like Iowa State’s Academic Search Elite
Peer Review in Three Minutes
From the University of North Caroline
The Peer Review Process
Why should you use peer-reviewed articles, and how do you find them?
How to Identify Scholarly Journal Articles
A short tutorial from Cornell that does a great job in a very short amount of time.
How to Read Citations
Another one of Cornell University Library’s short tutorials.
This is a short tutorial with actual questions at the end. From the University of Victoria.
A very simple illustration of various citation types (books, articles, chapters, etc) from Bloomsburg University.